Read the previous part of the article: Growing swede: soil preparation, fertilization, sowing seeds
It consists in the timely implementation of measures to combat pests and diseases, in loosening the soil between rows and in rows, in removing weeds, thinning at a distance of 3-4 cm in places where plants are thickened, in watering as needed and in 1-2 dressings ( the first - 6-7 days after germination, the second - 10-15 days after the first).
During the first feeding, 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt are taken for 10 liters of water, in the second - 20 g of each fertilizer. You can not get carried away with an excessive amount of nitrogen in feeding, since in the case of a cold spring it will contribute to the appearance of flowering plants. In addition, in this case, it is possible to obtain seedlings with elongated internodes, especially in the lower part, which causes a greater overgrowth of the head and the production of root crops with an elongated shape uncharacteristic of the variety.
Seedlings are planted when the 4-5th true leaf begins to appear, and the main root in the upper part will have a thickness of 3-4 mm. The date for planting swede coincides with the planting of seedlings of medium-late varieties of cabbage - at the end of May. When planting seedlings, a gap must not be allowed between pre-planting soil cultivation and planting plants in a permanent place. Planting should be done in cloudy weather if possible. In the case of dry sunny weather, rutabagas should be planted in the afternoon, and preferably in the evening. Seedlings are thoroughly watered on the eve of planting or early in the morning.
Plants are selected by digging into them with a scoop or spatula, so that the root system is better preserved. Before sampling seedlings, it is necessary to check for cabbage fly larvae on the roots of the turnip. If they are found, the roots of the seedlings are washed (washing off the larvae) in water. Severely damaged plants are discarded, and the rest are dipped in a solution of mullein with clay. When planting in dry hot weather, the day before sampling seedlings, large leaves are partially cut off. This reduces water evaporation and promotes better rooting of the seedlings. In the garden bed, the plants should be planted to the same depth as they grew in the nursery. When planting, you cannot bend the taproot, cut it off high and deepen the heart of the seedlings. Too deeply planted seedlings can die from swimming and death of the heart (central leaves). A strong break and other damage to the main root promotes the growth of thick lateral roots, and large accumulations of coarse tissues are formed in the pulp of the root crop.
Seedlings are planted with row spacing on a flat surface of 45 cm, less often - 60 cm, on ridges - 60 cm, on ridges - in two or three rows with a distance of 35 cm or 45 cm between them.In a row, plants are placed, regardless of the shape of the surface, on distance 20-30 cm.
When manually planting in a garden plot, you can place plants in a nesting method with a distance between the centers of the nests 40x60 cm or 50x60 cm, planting 2-3 plants in the nest. Planting must be combined with watering, pouring 0.5 liters of water under each plant, and then lowering the seedlings into the resulting gruel and covering it with wet at first, and dry soil on top.
In dry weather, 1-2 days after planting, the rutabagas are watered, and then, when the top layer of the soil dries up, it is loosened. A week after planting, the survival rate of the seedlings is checked and, if necessary, replanting is made in the places of the dead plants, after loosening and watering the wells.
Caring for swede crops includes loosening the soil between rows, killing weeds, thinning seedlings, fertilizing, watering and controlling pests and diseases.
The soil must be kept loose (especially in the upper layer), moist and free from weeds. The soil crust that forms after rainstorms is very dangerous for germinating seeds. When it appears before sprouting, the crops are immediately loosened with light rakes, scratches (cats) or hoes. The first loosening of the row spacings is carried out to a depth of 4-6 cm immediately after the emergence of seedlings or on the second day after planting the seedlings; the second - 7-10 days after the first. Row spacings are treated 2-4 times more at intervals of 10-15 days until the leaves close in rows. It is necessary to loosen not only the surface of the bed, but also additionally need to process the bottom of the furrow between the ridges 1-2 times. This helps to retain moisture and kills weeds.
Light soils, as well as dry ones, are loosened less often and finer than heavy and damp ones, which form a soil crust. Deep loosening (7-10 cm) near plants is unacceptable, as lateral roots are damaged. It should only be done in the middle of the furrows to improve air access and control weeds. For inter-row processing of swede in a personal plot, ordinary hoes, various flat cutters are used. Weeds should be weeded out and destroyed by repeated loosening at the very beginning of their development.
Timely and careful thinning of the swede is one of the must-haves to get a good quality harvest. The thickened standing of rutabaga plants for the first 15-20 days causes excessive stretching of the seedlings - people say: rutabaga has flowed. In the future, this leads to a greater overgrowth of the head and coarsening of the pulp. The first thinning of crops is done no later than the beginning of the appearance of the third true leaf. You can make a bouquet. To do this, using an ordinary sharp hoe, guiding it across the row, cut down excess plants, leaving bouquets at a distance of 12-15 cm from one another.
The second final thinning of swede crops with weeding in rows is done 10-20 days after the first, when 5-6 leaves begin to appear in the plants. Thin with a narrow hoe or by hand after rain or watering. In a row, one best plant from a bunch is left at a distance of 15-18 cm. In rutabagas, it is preferable to leave large plants (but not tall due to the larger hypocotal knee) with a dense rosette of leaves in order to grow root crops without overgrowing the head. Plants removed during thinning can be used as seedlings.
In fertile areas with stable, sufficiently high soil moisture, the area of food for plants should be left smaller than under the worst conditions of cultivation of rutabagas. If you want to grow root crops in a shorter period, the distance between the plants should be left large, as this favors their growth and accelerates the formation of root crops.
They increase the yield of rutabagas. During the growing period, it is fed 1-2 times: after the second thinning and before closing the rows. The best effect is provided by liquid fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. Feces cannot be used for feeding. Slurry, or even better fermented grass (live manure), is diluted with water 4-5 times and used for the first feeding. You can add a mixture of mineral fertilizers at the rate of: ammonium nitrate 5-7 g, double superphosphate 5 g and potassium chloride 5 g per 10 liters and pour over 1 m². Crystallin can be diluted in the amount of 10-15 g per bucket. The second dressing is done, as a rule, with mineral fertilizers: a mixture of ammonium nitrate - 5-10 g, superphosphate - 5 g, potassium chloride - 5-8 g per bucket and 1 m². The second top dressing can be done dry before rain or watering by embedding the fertilizer in the soil with a hoe. The lack of boron, if it has not been introduced into the soil, is replenished with foliar dressing, spraying the plants with a 0.1% solution of boric acid twice at intervals of 10-20 days (when root crops with a diameter of 3-5 cm are formed and before the rows are closed).
Irrigation of swede is very effective in dry years and during dry growing seasons. Withering and premature death of leaves is an indicator of the need for soil moisture. It is better to water the rutabagas less often, but thoroughly. The most efficient way to irrigate is by sprinkling or from a spray can. When watering, the pressure of the jet should be small, so as not to erode the soil and not greatly expose the roots, which in this case turn very green and lose their taste.
One watering can is poured in the first month on 30-40 plants, later - on 10-20 plants. When watering by hand, well-wetted soil is covered with a layer of dry soil to retain moisture or loosening is done after the moisture is absorbed. In a rainy autumn, 2-3 weeks before harvesting the swede, it is useful to huddle root crops.
In rutabagas, the entire supply of nutrients is concentrated in the cotyledons. If, after their appearance above the soil and in the next first days of life, the cotyledon plants are destroyed, the seedlings may die or the yield of root crops will be sharply reduced. Therefore, in order to obtain a good harvest of swede, it is necessary to preserve the seedlings from damage by the flea. To do this, on the 3-4th day after sowing, the soil is dusted with wood ash, tobacco dust or very finely ground lime.
A dangerous pest of swede is the cabbage fly. The mass emergence of spring flies in the North-West region is observed in late May - early June. This is the time when cherry blossoms start blooming, as well as lilac blossoms. Summer cabbage fly begins its years in the Non-Black Earth Region from the third decade of June. Females lay eggs near plants in spring one at a time, less often - several eggs, and in summer - in packs of 30-50 eggs. The larvae develop, go into the soil and harm the underground parts of plants. In spring, this often leads to the death of damaged plants, and in summer, their yield and quality decrease. In addition, by damaging the peel of root crops, summer fly larvae contribute to the defeat of bacterial diseases. An effective method of protecting plants from flies should be considered the selection of sowing dates in such a way that the plants receive the least damage from the defeat of its larvae.
To prevent egg laying in swede crops, it is recommended to add a mixture of naphthalene with sand (1:10) to the seedlings or planted seedlings during the summer period of these insects, this operation should be repeated after 10 days. You can also use shoveling the soil from the plants to remove the eggs laid by the fly. This technique is repeated 1-2 times.
Rutabaga is often damaged by cabbage aphids. In individual gardens, small initial foci of aphids can be destroyed by spraying: a solution of laundry soap (100-200 g per 10 l of water), lye (200 g of wood ash and 50 g of soap per 10 l of water).
Much attention should be paid to the destruction of harmful insects living in the soil. Against beetles and larvae of the nutcracker (wireworm), in addition to agrotechnical methods, including the correct system of soil cultivation, the destruction of weeds, especially creeping wheatgrass, liming of acidic soils, food baits are used (pieces of potatoes, beets, etc.). The baits are laid out in rows at a distance of no more than 1 meter, until the soil is dry, and the beetles stay in its upper layer, and drop them in. After 3-4 days, bait with gnawed larvae is dug up and destroyed.
Of diseases rutabagas affect keela, black leg, phomosis, downy mildew (peronosporosis). The greatest danger to rutabagas in the Non-Black Earth Region is the keela. It affects the roots of all plants of the cabbage family, including weeds. Growths of various shapes and sizes are formed on the roots, the plants grow weakened or completely die. Root crops are formed with poor quality pulp. High soil moisture (80-90%), high temperature (+ 18 ... + 24 ° C), acidic and slightly acidic soil reaction contribute to the germination of keel spores and more plant infection. At later sowing dates, after repeated tillage, turnip plants usually suffer less from keel than earlier ones. Although small swelling on horses can be caused by other reasons: damage to plants by the smallest parasites - nematodes or disturbances in normal growth, which are caused by non-observance of the rules of agricultural technology in seed production of rutabagas.
In addition to general measures to combat diseases of root crops, including adherence to the rules of crop rotation, deep tillage of the soil in the fall, destruction of weeds and pests, maintaining the soil in a loose state, applying fertilizers in the correct ratio, careful harvesting of crop residues, it is necessary to monitor soil acidity indicators (against keels and black leg) and carry out liming, sow disinfected seeds, do timely loosening of the soil and thinning of plants, moderately water the seedlings.
For summer use, the plants are harvested selectively, as the root crops are formed, which have reached a diameter of 5-7 cm, which occurs approximately 40-50 days after transplanting. In this phase, they already have good taste, are quite nutritious, contain more vitamin C. Root crops intended for use in autumn and winter are harvested at one time, at the end of the growing season, in such a way as to prevent freezing.
Harvesting should be done in sunny, dry weather. Table rutabaga is easily pulled out of the soil. In healthy plants, the leaves are immediately cut short (to a height of about 1 cm). Through them there is a significant evaporation of moisture, and uncut roots quickly lose weight and juiciness. At the same time, the axial root is cut at a distance of about 1 cm from the bottom of the root crop. At the same time, root crops are sorted into economically suitable and rejected. Plants with a thick, overgrown head and a large number of thick lateral roots are classified as non-marketable, since they have coarser flesh, worse taste than standard ones.
During harvesting, cleaning root crops from the ground, storing them, you should handle the turnip carefully, do not hit them against each other and on solid objects to shake off the ground, do not throw, do not damage - all this will negatively affect the safety of root crops in winter ...
Root crops from individual gardens are stored in basements, caissons at a temperature of 0 ... + 1 ° C (the temperature can be lowered to -0.5 ... -1 ° C) and humidity within 90-95%. You can well preserve the rutabagus in pits with a narrowed bottom, which can be dug out on the site, provided that the ground is high and there is no flood water. Rutabagas are loaded into them when the earth in the upper layer cools down to + 5 ... + 7 ° С.
Read the end of the article: The use of swede in medicine and cooking →
candidate of agricultural sciences
Greetings, dear friends!
I apologize for the long silence. I did not write for a long time due to the fact that I was at the Winter Paralympics. There are a lot of impressions. Well, now it's time to get to work, because our gardening campaign is approaching by leaps and bounds.
Let's talk today about how to grow rutabagas on the site.
A very good variety for our climatic zones in the center of Russia is the Krasnoselskaya variety. Rutabaga of this variety has a flat-rounded root crop, its color is yellow, with a greenish head.
There are two ways to grow rutabagas - directly by sowing seeds in the ground and by growing seedlings.
I will tell you more about the second method, or I think it is the most suitable for growing rutabagas in our zone.
In early April, sowing is carried out in greenhouses. The approximate sowing rate is 1 gram of seeds per 10 square meters of area. Seeds should be planted about 1 centimeter deep. For better and even dispersion, seeds can be mixed in a 1: 1 ratio with sifted superphosphate. If you find tooth powder in stocks, you can mix it with it, in the same ratio.
When 2 - 3 weeks have passed, the plants need to be thinned if necessary. If there is such an opportunity, make a pick, that is, you need to pinch the root growth point.
Seedlings need to be well hardened, they must grow with a well-developed root system, otherwise "dead" seedlings are unlikely to develop properly outdoors.
Seedlings are planted directly on a place prepared in the garden in the phase of 5 - 6 true leaves. It is necessary to plant deeply so that the bare stem does not remain at all. The soil around each seedling should be lightly tamped.
Now a few words about growing rutabagas by sowing seeds directly into the ground. I have only tried this sowing method once, and I will honestly say that I did not harvest the rutabagas. Maybe you can do it. Sowing is carried out in rows on a flat area, with a distance of 10 centimeters between them. It is necessary to close the seeds to a depth of 1 - 2 centimeters. When the seedlings appear, they should be thinned out, leaving 30 - 40 centimeters between the plants.
Of course grow rutabagas it will not work without proper care of the plants, although there is nothing special here. As usual, care is the loosening of row spacings, timely hilling of turnip plants at the time of the formation of rosettes of cover leaves, regular watering.
The full ripening of the swede occurs 120 days after sowing. But you can already eat those roots that have reached 5 - 7 centimeters in diameter, that is, approximately 45 - 50 days after planting.
I want to say that the greatest harm to rutabagas, among other things, like the root crops of turnips, radishes, radishes, is caused in early spring by small black jumping bugs - cruciferous fleas. If you do not fight them, they can severely damage the leaves of young shoots along the edges. Adult fleas hibernate in the remains of plants, under fallen leaves, directly in the soil - its upper layer. Flea eggs are laid on plant roots and in the soil. After a couple of days, larvae appear, which gnaw the roots of cruciferous plants, after which they pupate in the surface layers of the soil. The young generation of cruciferous flea beetles will reappear at the end of July and will damage plants until autumn. You can fight this pest by destroying plant residues in the fall, killing weeds, by feeding turnip plants with slurry, dusting with tobacco dust together with wood ash in a 1: 1 ratio. Before processing, the usual watering of crops is quite effective.
Try it grow rutabagas on your garden plot. After all, this is an excellent vitamin product with excellent tasting qualities. See you, dear friends!
Rutabaga is grown in two ways:
Growing rutabagas in the open field in a seedling way reduces the ripening time of the vegetable. This is important for cold regions. Sowing seeds for seedlings begins in mid-April.
Growing rutabagas in seedlings reduces the ripening time of root crops
Seedlings of swede are planted in open ground on the 40th day. At this time, the plant should have at least 4 leaves. Before planting in an outdoor environment, the seedlings are hardened for 10 days to 2 weeks, for which they are placed in fresh air, starting at one hour, gradually increasing the time.
For planting in the ground, prepare holes by digging them 20 cm apart. The pits are watered, and the roots of the seedlings are moistened with a clay mash, which is a creamy mixture of clay, water and mullein. When planting plants in the soil, you need to make sure that the neck of the root remains above the ground, compact the shoots, and then water them.
When planting plants in the soil, you need to make sure that the root neck remains above the ground.
Sowing preparations begin in the autumn. To do this, take the following steps:
After a week, turnip seeds can be sown on such a site. Sowing time is determined by weather conditions. Take into account the manifestation of the activity of the cruciferous flea, which can harm the seedlings. Therefore, rutabagas are sown when it is cool, at an air temperature not higher than 15‒18 ° C. In warm regions, this occurs at the end of May, in cold regions - at the end of June.
Swede seeds can be sown directly into open ground
Landing is carried out as follows:
Planting a plant can be done in two steps. If the seeds are sown in early spring, the culture will ripen in the summer, it should be used immediately. Routine sowing in the summer will yield crops in the fall. It is suitable for storage.
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This plant is cold-resistant, prefers loamy and deoxidized peat soils for two years.
When properly grown, rutabagas can grow up to 20kg, and their tops can grow up to 60cm in height, which is suitable for livestock feed and silage.
Seeds are sown in the spring, after the snow melts, usually at the end of April. The vegetative period of this culture lasts from 110 to 130 days.
Seeds germinate at a temperature of 1-3 ° C, and young shoots can withstand short-term frosts down to -3 ° C. Optimal conditions for growing swede are 12-17 ° C.
In hot and dry summers, the roots of this culture lose their taste and become woody. Dig up the planting area, remove the roots of the weeds and break up large clods of soil.
Prepare grooves 4-5 cm deep, add humus and sifted wood ash to them in a layer of 1.5-2 cm and spill well with water.
Swede seeds are sown at a distance of 5-6 cm, to a depth of 2 cm. Sprinkle with soil on top. You can cover with foil for 2-3 days. Shoots should appear in 5-6 days.
Growing rutabagas you need to monitor the thickening, it does not tolerate shading. The first thinning is carried out after the appearance of the first 2 leaves.
The distance between the plants is 15 cm. The second is at the stage of 5 leaves, leaving 20 cm between the seedlings. This garden culture easily tolerates a transplant, so you do not need to throw out thinned bushes.
They can be carefully removed with a spoon with a lump of earth and planted in an empty place. The freed areas are sprinkled with soil.
After thinning, watering is carried out. In general, the swede needs regular watering, loosening of the soil, fertilizing with fertilizers and easy hilling of root crops.
Only in this case can you count on getting a good harvest in your country gardens.
It is desirable to carry out the first feeding in the phase of 5 leaves with slurry diluted in water (1:10).
Approximate consumption of 1 liter. per plant. The second at the beginning of the formation of the fruit (3 tablespoons of complex fertilizer per 10 liters of water).
There are different experiences in this world. Some people, for example, grow tomato seedlings in three-liter glass jars. They are filled with nutrient soil by one third or half. The soil is compacted and watered, prepared seeds are evenly spread on it, covered with a layer of 0.5 cm and compacted again.
The neck of the can is tied with foil and taken out into the bathroom. When the first shoots loops appear, the bank is moved to a well-lit window, and the film is replaced with gauze. Watering is rare. When two true leaves grow, the seedlings must be removed and planted.
This requires a special tool made of 6 mm wire. One end is bent in the form of a loop-handle, the other is flattened and sharpened. You can get 80-100 seedlings from one jar. This method provides high germination of seeds, and, in addition, the banks do not require much space.
Growing Brussels sprouts is practically no different from growing white cabbage. True, there are some peculiarities. So, for example, Brussels sprouts do not need hilling, because it leads to rotting of the lower heads of cabbage, and sometimes the entire stem.
Fertilizers applied to Brussels sprouts increase your chances not only for a good harvest, but also for healthy plants, so you should not skip feeding. In total, during cultivation on the ridges, this crop needs 2 mineral dressings, but if you grow it on fertile soil, you can get by with only one.
|Duration of the||Means||Consumption rate|
|A week after disembarking on the ridge||1 tsp nitrophosphate for 10 liters of water||5 l per plant|
|At the beginning of the formation of heads of cabbage||25 g superphosphate, 25 g potassium sulfate, 1 tsp. nitroammophos for 10 liters of water||1.5 l per plant|
This culture is hygrophilous and responsive to watering. They need to be carried out every week, spending 30-35 liters of water per 1 square meter before the heads of cabbage appear, and 40-45 liters after they begin to form.
After watering, the cabbage must be loosened and rid of weeds. During periods of rains or high humidity, the frequency of watering should be reduced and water stagnation in the root zone of plants should not be allowed.