Top dressing of garden strawberries in spring is a primary agronomic technique designed to increase the collection of fragrant fruits. By properly fertilizing a reviving plant, you can support the bushes when they wake up after winter, help them develop better, and lay more new buds. Top dressing of garden strawberries during this period is carried out according to certain rules.
After the snow has melted, the soil has dried up, the strawberry beds are subjected to spring overhaul. Work is carried out with each bush:
After 2-3 days, start early spring feeding with organic and mineral compounds. Fertilizing strawberries is one of the most important procedures affecting crop yields.
The purpose of feeding is to ensure the rapid growth of the ground part of the plant, to form many new ovaries, and to replenish the depleted soil with a supply of nutrients. If everything is done correctly in the optimal time frame, according to the correct recipe, you can lay the foundation for a rich harvest of sweet, nutritious, healthy berries. Top dressing is carried out according to the principle: underfeeding - to lose part of the strawberry harvest; overfeed - to provoke active growth of leaves to the detriment of the development of fruits or the death of the plant.
Experienced summer residents adhere to the proven optimal scheme for feeding strawberries with fertilizers in the spring.
|Strawberry growing period||Type of fertilizers used|
|Spring of the first year||Seedlings are not fertilized, since the seedlings are fed with starter fertilizer added to the soil during planting|
|Spring of the second year||Bringing in a combination of mineral and organic compounds|
|Spring of the third year||They are fed only with mineral compounds|
|Spring of the fourth year||Bringing in a combination of mineral and organic compounds|
Every 4 years, planting of garden strawberries is updated, while the feeding scheme is repeated taking into account the year of growing new bushes.
In certain climatic zones of Russia, the time for starting work in the spring on strawberry plantations is different:
You can neither rush nor be late with deadlines. The same applies to doses: the lack and excess of fertilizers has a bad effect on the condition and development of strawberry bushes. Spring feeding has 2 goals:
In the spring, they carry out not only feeding the strawberry root system, but also the bush itself. A cloudy, windless day when there is no precipitation is chosen for spraying. The main purpose of foliar feeding is to strengthen the ground part of the bushes and to accelerate the growth of leaves and buds to promote the formation of strong ovaries.
Foliar dressing is carried out on a day without precipitation.
The best effect is achieved by spraying the plants with a solution containing various trace elements, which are absorbed directly into the leaves.
Experienced summer residents recommend using a composition for the first spring foliar feeding, which includes the following substances:
With this solution, strawberry leaves are moistened with a hand sprayer or an ordinary watering can. It is necessary to wash the leaves on both sides, until they are abundantly wet, in the amount of 1 liter per bush. It is especially necessary to moisten the lower part of the leaf, since it absorbs the nutrient solution most actively.
The same mixture is fed to strawberries a second time in the spring, before flowering. With the appearance of the first buds, the amount of nutrients is reduced by 2 times and 2 g of potassium sulfate is added to the solution.
Another compound used as fertilizer consists of the following ingredients:
For each bush, 1 liter of such a solution is needed.
To combat diseases and harmful insects, fungicides and insecticides are added to the foliar feeding of strawberries. For these purposes, summer residents are advised to use:
Last year's garden strawberries, planted in fertilized soil, are not fed during spring work so as not to exceed the dosage. But there will not be much harm if, on poor soils, the roots of the berry are poured with a solution of mullein or chicken droppings (0.5 liters of concentrated organic matter per bucket of water) with the addition of 1 tbsp. sodium sulfate. Under each bush, 1 liter of such a mixture is applied.
Young strawberry bushes can be fertilized with a solution of mullein or chicken droppings
Unlike young plants, mature garden strawberries are fed regularly as the soil becomes impoverished. A berry that has been producing crops in a row for several years needs three feeding in April-May:
Dry fertilizers are scattered under each bush
At the first feeding, organic matter is used: rotted chicken or cow dung. Small amounts of humus are scattered under the roots of each bush, then mulched with earth in a layer of 2-3 cm. In addition, a solution at the rate of 1 liter of concentrated liquid cow dung per bucket of water will also be useful. This mixture is poured over the bush itself, that is, foliar feeding is carried out.
Yeast contains many useful substances: proteins, amino acids, micro and macro elements. Fertilizing from them accelerates the growth of the ground part of the strawberry, and strengthens the root system in the soil. To prepare the solution you will need:
The finished solution must be abundantly watered each bush.
Summer residents grow two types of garden strawberries:
The choice of the type of fertilizer, the required dose, the timing of application is made taking into account the belonging of the strawberry to a particular variety. Incorrect use of formulations for feeding bushes will reduce yields and lengthen the ripening period of berries.
The combination of components should preserve the health of the plant, ensure abundant yield, protect against various diseases and harmful insects. Mineral fertilizers for garden strawberries provide them with phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. Sulfates and nitrate are used to supply the soil with nitrogen, urea is used to produce the required dose of potassium. Organic matter improves the structure of the soil, enriches it with chemical elements in an easily digestible form, and increases the height of the fertile layer.
Mineral fertilizers are of two types:
Garden strawberries need nitrogen to grow leaves and buds. It has a positive effect on rapid development and fruiting. Lack of nitrogen can be identified by the color of the leaves, which will have a pale appearance.
The most common nitrogen fertilizer for feeding strawberries in spring is urea (carbamide). Its overdose does not threaten the life of the berry bush, but negatively affects the sugar content of the fruit. A solution with urea is prepared as follows: 1 tbsp. fertilizer is diluted in 10 liters of water. 0.5 l of the composition is poured under each root of the plant.
When the first inflorescences appear in strawberries, it needs potassium. The taste and juiciness of berries depends on its presence in the soil. Sources of the substance are mineral supplements in the form of potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium. Mineral fertilizers, which include sulfur, protect strawberry bushes from diseases and pests. Roots need phosphorus for development and growth, so summer residents use superphosphate and ammophoska.
These include natural substances that are produced by living organisms. Summer residents most often use cow dung, chicken manure, ash and compost on strawberry plantations. Slurry made from fresh mullein, rich in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium, is especially appreciated.
For its preparation, a bucket of fresh cow cakes is bred with 4 buckets of water. The container is closed and left in the sun for 2-3 days for fermentation. This process is necessary for the breakdown of uric acid, which burns the roots of strawberry bushes.
Chicken manure is used with caution, since in its composition it is similar to mineral fertilizers. When fresh, it is not used.
The soil between the bushes is treated with a solution of chicken manure, the liquid should not get on the green parts of the plant
An infusion or extract is prepared from the droppings. The nutrient solution is watered between the rows of strawberry bushes, and not the roots themselves. To prepare the infusion, chicken droppings and pure water are mixed in equal proportions with a wood stick. Then the container is closed and placed in a dark place so that fermentation is not strong. Otherwise, the solution will be too concentrated. After a week, the ready-made mixture is used for feeding, diluting strongly with water (1 liter of infusion for 30-50 liters of liquid). Water the soil with the prepared solution at a distance of 10-15 cm from the bushes, having previously well moistened the roots with water from a watering can.
Pure wood ash is scattered into the aisles
Wood ash extract is an accessible type of organic matter. It is used in the spring to feed the roots, leaves, shoots of the strawberry bush. The nutrients in the ash make the berry sweeter and more shelf-stable. In dry form, it is scattered in the aisles (65 g per linear meter) before watering or rain.
Strawberry bushes are treated with whey
Fermented milk products (whey, kefir and others) are a valuable source of nutrients for strawberries that love slightly acidic soil. This type of organic matter is used alone or mixed with mullein, bird droppings, humus.
Infusion of nettle and other weeds also serves as a fertilizer
Infusion of nettle, lupine, weeds, used in spring, has a beneficial effect on the formation of the strawberry bush. It is prepared as follows:
In early spring, ready-made fertilizer compositions are used to feed strawberries:
In specialized stores there is a large selection of ready-made complex mixtures, which are fed to strawberry bushes in spring
Each summer resident himself determines the need to apply one or another feeding of strawberries in the spring, taking into account the structure and composition of the soil, previously used fertilizers, the state of berry bushes after wintering. But there are general rules to be followed. Over-saturation of garden strawberries with fertilizers will lead to rapid growth of leaves, while there will be no rich harvest of fruit. An excess of trace elements will cause not only the active development of the ground part, but will also cause the appearance of various diseases, since internal processes will be disrupted, and the protective functions of strawberries will decrease.
At one time, as neighbors in the country, I had a cute granny, whose strawberry bushes were incredibly huge. When she was asked what she was doing, that the strawberries were so solid, the grandmother answered: better than any top dressing is renewal of the bush and watering it. But after 3 years the bushes became noticeably smaller. It can be seen that watering and renewal is not enough.
Then I decided to help my neighbor and get information on what strawberries need to get a big harvest.
Spring work with strawberries is carried out in a certain order. After the snow has melted, they remove the mulch, which served as a shelter for the bushes. The garden bed is also cleaned of all plant debris, dried bushes are removed. The earth needs to be slightly loosened so that the roots can access oxygen. Watering is carried out not earlier than the earth dries out from moisture.
For the rapid growth of bushes and the formation of a large number of ovaries, strawberries need feeding. They will need to be added after the formation of two or three leaves and before flowering. The specific application time depends on the climatic zone and weather conditions.
If you have the opportunity to visit the summer cottage early or the site is located next to the house, dry fertilizers can be scattered directly over the melted snow. Mineral substances dissolve in puddles of water and go to the roots. During this period, wood ash and granular mineral fertilizers can be used.
In the northern regions, care for strawberry bushes begins a month later - around mid-April. As soon as the bushes are open and cleared of plant debris, watering can be done, followed by fertilization.
If the first time you get into your garden, when the ground is already dry, you need to feed the strawberries during the first loosening. In any case, you must have time to apply fertilizer at the stage of formation of the first few leaves in order to start an active growing season.
At this time, you can make both dry and liquid top dressing, as well as spray the strawberries on the leaf. At the root, fertilizer is necessarily applied to damp ground, after watering or rain. The first feeding should be saturated with nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of green mass.
Before flowering, it is good to feed the strawberries with organic fertilizers. For this, the following is perfect:
Many summer residents simply spread dry manure under the bushes, sprinkling it with a layer of earth 2-3 cm thick.You can also prepare a manure solution using two glasses of rotted manure per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 tbsp. tablespoons of sodium sulfate. 1 liter of top dressing is poured under each bush.Humus is good because it is well absorbed by the roots.
Regular baker's yeast can be of immense benefit to the gardener if you know how to use it. The fact is that yeast nourishes strawberries, saturating the plants not only with nitrogen (for the intensive growth of green mass and the development of the bush), but also with other useful microelements that help to get large and tasty berries.
The benefits of such feeding:
And the best part is that both live and dry yeast are used.
How to make live yeast fertilizer:
Each bush needs 0.5 liters. such fertilizer.
Foliar top dressing with the same solution is also relevant. And this can be done 3 times during the growing season.
For adult bushes, top dressing is necessary. Strawberries will grow even if you don't fertilize them, but you can forget about a good harvest in this case. And over time, the soil is depleted and does not provide the plants with the necessary amount of nutrients.
The desired effect will not be achieved if insufficient or excess fertilization is applied. Nitrogen fertilizer is given only at temperatures above 15 degrees. When introducing a solution of rotted manure or bird droppings, water the stems and leaves of strawberries with it at the same time.
If strawberry bushes were planted in compliance with agricultural technology, then in the first year of life they do not need fertilizers. But if during planting no fertilizing was applied, or you doubt its sufficient amount, you can feed the young with a solution of chicken manure prepared at the rate of 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water. A solution of sodium sulfate is also suitable (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). For each bush, one liter of finished fertilizer is consumed.
Yeast is very popular among summer residents. With the prepared solution, they feed not only strawberries, but also vegetables, shrubs, house plants. But many gardeners still question whether yeast can be used to feed strawberries. This question can be answered: "Not only is it possible, but also necessary!"
In order to feed 10 strawberry bushes, you will need to prepare 5 liters of natural fertilizer. The nutrients supplied to the plant roots from the prepared solution are enough for 2 months.
When is it better to feed strawberries with yeast solution? During the growing season, 3 additional dressings are required. That is, the first feeding is carried out during the budding and flowering period, the second - during fruiting, and the third - after the end of the fruiting and harvesting period.
In order to start the spring transplanting of strawberries to another place, you need to wait until the soil warms up to +8 ºС. The place is chosen level, high, well-lit by the sun and protected from northern winds. Legumes, carrots, onions, garlic, and aromatic herbs are good precursors.
Humus (5 kg per sq. M.), Potassium sulfate (15 g per sq. M.), Ammonium sulfate (25 g per sq. M.) And superphosphate (60 g per sq. M.) .). Everything is dug up on a bayonet and a ridge is formed. After two weeks, you can start transplanting.
Before planting strawberries, the ridge is spilled with warm water and marked out according to the 50x40 cm scheme. Young plants that have not yet turned 2 years old are suitable for transplanting. Each bush should have at least 2 leaves and a root at least 5 cm long.
The seedling is placed in a pre-prepared hole, sprinkled with soil, lightly rammed. It is important that the growing point of the strawberry, the so-called "heart", always remains above ground level. After the plant is watered and mulched with humus, sawdust or straw.
Nothing pleases the gardener more than the result of his own labors. In order for the strawberry garden to bring rich harvests every year, it is necessary to take care of it on time.